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Newfoundland and Labrador

Updated: June 19th, 2023

A unique province on the east coast of Canada, Newfoundland and Labrador's area consists of islands and a small population of just over 500,000 people who primarily reside on the Avalon Peninsula. The capital city, St. Johns, is located on the north side of the province.

About Newfoundland and Labrador

Newfoundland and Labrador are Canada's most easterly provinces. The Norse archaeological site L'Anse aux Meadows on Newfoundland Island is the reported settlement of Viking explorer Leif Erikson. The Gulf of St. Lawrence's Gros Morne National Park has cliffs, waterfalls, and glacial fjords.

It ceded its independence to the British Empire in 1933. It was formerly known as the Dominion of Newfoundland and, before that, as the Newfoundland Colony.

It became the tenth and newest province to enter the Canadian Confederation on March 31, 1949, as "Newfoundland." On December 6, 2001, the Canadian Constitution changed the province's name to "Newfoundland and Labrador."

Where are Newfoundland and Labrador on the Map?

Newfoundland and Labrador is Canada's most easterly province in North America's northeastern area. The Strait of Belle Isle divides the province into two geographical parts: Labrador, connected to mainland Canada, and Newfoundland, an Atlantic Ocean island.

The province also contains over 7,000 small islands. The province covers 156,500 sq mi (405,212 square kilometers) and includes the island of Newfoundland and the continental territory of Labrador.

The terrain is somewhat mountainous, with Newfoundland's Long Range Mountains forming the north end of the Appalachian Mountain Range.

The province of Newfoundland and Labrador enjoys a rather varied climate from the Sub-Arctic in the south to the Arctic Tundra in the north of Labrador. Newfoundland’s climate is Maritime Continental, and much milder. The terrain is somewhat mountainous, with Newfoundland’s Long Range Mountains forming the north end of the Appalachian Mountain Range.

Economy and Industries

The main driving force for Newfoundland and Labrador's economy remains its excellent fisheries. Mining, especially iron ore, produces around 50% of Canada's iron supplies with offshore oil rigs fueling 20% of the province's GDP.

Newfoundland and Labrador provide immigrants with many opportunities in fishery and resources. Considering the richness of the land in the resources above, there is a constant need for skilled workers.

Its main industries comprise agriculture, energy; fishing, forestry, mining; and oil and gas.

As a result, you'll find many jobs in Newfoundland and Labrador in these industries. For example, fishermen/women (NOC 8262) usually earn between $18.00/hour and $80.00/hour in Newfoundland and Labrador.

There are also opportunities for home support workers. Home support workers, housekeepers and related occupations (NOC 4412) usually earn between $15.50/hour and $17.74/hour in Newfoundland and Labrador.

There are various in-demand occupations and corresponding visa opportunities created to attract people to the beautiful region.

Climate/ Weather

Newfoundland has a mild summer temperature with a humid continental climate due to its closeness to water – no island area is more than 100 kilometers (62 miles) from the Atlantic Ocean.

Conversely, Northern Labrador has a polar tundra climate, whereas southern Labrador has a subarctic climate. Newfoundland and Labrador has a variety of climates and weather patterns, including frequent combinations of strong winds, snow, rain, and fog, making travel by road, air, or ferry difficult or impossible.

Surface water temperatures on the Atlantic side range from 54 °F (12 °C) onshore to 48 °F (9 °C) offshore in summer to 30 °F (1 °C) inshore and 36 °F (2 °C) offshore in winter. Sea temperatures on the west coast are about 2-5 °F (1-3 °C) higher than on the east coast. On the coast, the sea keeps winter temperatures slightly higher and summer temperatures slightly lower than inland.

Major Cities

St. John's

St. John's, the southeastern capital city, is known for its 17th-century Signal Hill citadel, which has a hillside walking trail. It is Canada's 22nd-largest census metropolitan area, home to roughly 40% of the province's population. St. John's serves as the seat of government for Newfoundland and Labrador and the jurisdiction's highest court, the Newfoundland and Labrador Court of Appeal.

Conception Bay South

Conception Bay South is the province's second-largest municipality, with a population of 26,199, much smaller than St. John's. The town sits on the Avalon Peninsula, on the south beaches of Conception Bay, and is part of the greater St. John's Metropolitan Area.

The lush terrain and numerous natural resources drew the area's early inhabitants, mostly English and Irish. In 1973, the town was founded by merging nine minor settlements. Conception Bay South previously had a thriving fishing business and now has a thriving tourism economy.

Mount Pearl

Mount Pearl is Newfoundland and Labrador's second-largest city but its third-most populated municipality, with a population of 23,120. Mount Pearl is located southwest of St. John's on the eastern extremity of the Avalon Peninsula. It was formed in 1829 and incorporated as a town in 1955, then as a city in 1988.

It is often called a city within a park. Over 60 parks, playgrounds, and trails are available, as well as a swimming pool, fitness center, and skating rink. The Admiralty House Communications Museum and all parks and facilities are connected by 60 kilometers of beautiful forested walkways.

Things to do in Newfoundland and Labrador

If you enjoy sightseeing, there are many rustic lighthouses and museums across the province. Some top attractions include the Fisherman's Museum in Twillingate, an Aquarium in Petty Harbour, several nature reserves, and a few art galleries and theaters.

For hunters, the province has excellent populations of moose and caribou, black bears, lynx, small game, migratory birds, and waterfowl. Few places on earth can rival the fishing in Newfoundland and Labrador, with world-class opportunities for landlocked salmon, northern pike, whitefish, trophy brook trout, Atlantic salmon, and arctic char.

Nature lovers will be astounded at whale and bird watching opportunities. In addition, there are places to enjoy kayaking and canoeing, rafting, scuba diving, sailing, and snowmobiling, all while surrounded by breathtaking scenery.

Cost of Living

Newfoundland and Labrador offer an excellent and affordable quality of life. The cost of living in this province is much lower when compared to many of the larger centers in Canada, such as Toronto or Vancouver.

Though the province has a low average income for families in Newfoundland with a mandatory minimum wage, housing and heating costs and living costs are generally among the lowest in Canada.

The minimum wage in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, has been raised from October 1, 2022, to September 19, 2022. The minimum wage in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, was increased on October 1. The minimum hourly pay has risen from $13.20 to $13.70.

Newfoundland has one of Canada's lowest housing purchase costs. The fundamental explanation for the east coast's jaw-dropping affordability is the supply-demand balance, which still moderately supports the home-buying activity.

The average Newfoundland income in Canada is $39,000 per year or $20 per hour. Entry-level salaries begin at $31,200 annually, with the most experienced professionals earning up to $73,988 annually.

Immigration/Dedicated Visa

The Newfoundland and Labrador Provincial Nominee Program (NLPNP)

The Newfoundland and Labrador Provincial Nominee Program (NLPNP) is where candidates with the skills and qualifications that Newfoundland and Labrador are looking for, are nominated for immigration.

The Newfoundland and Labrador Provincial Nominee Program is an economic immigration program that assists talented immigrants and their families in moving to Newfoundland and Labrador to live and work.

To be nominated for permanent residency, applicants must satisfy specific criteria, such as having a job or job offer, the ability to monetarily establish themselves, and the intent to live in the province. This program assigns each applicant a specific immigration officer who will be accessible to explain the program's criteria and processes until the candidate receives permanent residence status.

The NLPNP accepts applications under three immigration categories:

Skilled Worker Category
International Graduate Category
Immigrant Entrepreneur Category

Atlantic Immigration Program (AIP)

The Atlantic Immigration Program (AIP) is an economic program for foreign nationals with employment offers in the Atlantic area, that have been approved by an Atlantic province, and fulfil minimal education, work experience, and language competence standards.

Prospective immigrants who want to settle in one of the four Atlantic provinces: New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island. If you want to live in a province in the Atlantic region and you meet all of the following requirements, you can apply for the AIP:

  • Provincial endorsement
  • Minimum education requirements
  • Minimum language proficiency requirements
  • Minimum work experience
  • Minimum job offer requirements


According to Statistics Canada, as of July 1 2022, Newfoundland and Labrador's population stood at 525,972. The language predominantly spoken is English. The province also has a large Irish, Scottish and French community. Thanks to large immigration numbers across Canada, Arabic, Spanish, Innu, Tagalog, Hindi, Mandarin and Germany are also spoken. 

Newfoundland and Labrador's residents are fondly known as "Newfoundlanders" and "Labradorians", with an incredibly diverse population of British Isles (English, Irish, and Scottish), South Asian, Chinese, and aboriginal people. The predominant religion is Protestant at 59.7% and Catholic at 36.3%. English is predominantly spoken in the province by almost half a million people, while French trails behind at around 2000 speakers.


There are only two publicly-funded institutes of higher learning, and both are situated in Newfoundland.

The Memorial University of Newfoundland, in St. Johns, was established in 1925 and has four main campuses and two satellite campuses in 3 regions of Newfoundland and Labrador. The university offers degrees in Engineering, Geology, Business, and Medicine and is rated as one of the best universities in Canada.

The College of the North Atlantic in Stephenville was established in 1997 and consists of several smaller trade schools. The college offers over 100 study programs at 17 campuses all over Newfoundland and Labrador. In addition, there are 25 private trade schools throughout Newfoundland and Labrador.


Which NOC is In Demand in Newfoundland?

Long-distance truck drivers, master cooks and butchers, and several other occupations are in great demand in the province. Foreign skilled professionals who want to relocate to Atlantic Canada can apply for permanent residency (PR) under the Atlantic Immigration Program (AIP).

What is Newfoundland and Labrador Best Known For?

Newfoundland and Labrador is known for its friendliness. The people here are noted for their innate inventiveness, distinctive vocabulary, talent for storytelling, and being kind and inviting.

Where are the Colourful Houses in Newfoundland and Labrador?

Just Walk Around Downtown St. John’s is home to many historical buildings and heritage homes. Even if you choose to wander away from the commercial hubs of Duckworth Street and Water Street, the residential areas are overflowing with townhouses painted in vivid colours, often depicted in artwork as Jellybean Row.

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